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来源:光明咨询    发布时间:2018年02月20日 17:41:19    编辑:admin         

Business TCS in America From Mumbai to the Midwest商业 塔塔在美国 从孟买到美国中西部Far from home, Tata Consultancy Services strives to move upmarket塔塔咨询务公司力争向高端市场转型DRIVE up the leafy Leadership Trail in Milford, Ohio and you reach what appears from the outside to be a luxury ski lodge.行驶在俄亥俄州米尔福德的领导路上,林木繁茂,而后到了一处外观奢华,看似是滑雪场的地方。Inside, large windows with forest views are a constant reminder of the surrounding American heartland.透着森林景象的窗景无时不刻的提醒来客您正置身于美国核心腹地。This is Tata Consultancy Services new American facility, a stark contrast to TCSs colonial-era headquarters overlooking sweltering cricket pitches in Mumbai.这是塔塔咨询务中心(以下简称塔塔)的新式美版设施,与以往看似闷热的板球场的不同,塔塔自殖民时期以来在孟买设立的总部有了明显变化。Bought in 2008, the Ohio facility is a symbol of TCSs efforts to polish its brand and move to higher-margin services.此处为塔塔在俄亥俄州的分部,购置于2008年,正是该公司擦亮招牌向高利润务业进军的标志。One reason for choosing Milford, a satellite of Cincinnati, was the proximity of Midwestern clients: ten Fortune 500 companies are based in Cincinnati alone.塔塔选址在辛辛那提的卫星城米尔福德的原因之一,是其距离中西部客户的地理优势:《财富》500强企业中就有10家驻扎在辛辛那提。Another is cost: it is one of the cheapest among Americas main cities and has plenty of land on its fringes.其二是成本问题:这是美国消费最低的大城市之一,且地区有很多闲置土地。A third reason for choosing Ohio is the presence of decent universities nearby.选址的原因之三是因为附近的高等学府。TCS set up shop in Milford not only to be closer to clients but to begin in earnest to hire American graduates.塔塔设分部在此不仅是为了接近消费者,也是渴求招募到美国的毕业生。Most of TCSs new coders in Ohio are fresh from the nearby universities of Kentucky, Cincinnati, Purdue, Ohio State and others.在俄亥俄州,塔塔新进的编程人员大多都来自于附近的肯塔基大学、辛辛那提大学、印第安纳州立大学和俄亥俄州立大学等等。They are cheaper than Ivy League graduates and TCS offers them interesting work with a booming company.他们的薪水要求相较于常春藤略低,而塔塔也以日益壮大的企业背景下为他们提供感兴趣的工作。The facility has 450 employees now, nearly all American, thanks to the difficulty of getting visas for Indians, and the plan is to increase their number to 1,000.由于印度来此的签困难,该分部现有 450名员工几乎都是美国人,而公司也计划将人员扩招到1000.They are a fraction of TCSs 215,000-strong workforce but represent the bridgehead of its ambitions to go beyond being merely an outsourced back-office and coding shop and take on such consultancy giants as IBM, Hewlett-Packard (HP) and Accenture on their home turf.这只占塔塔21万5千名员工的一部分,但显示出公司争取的不只做外包后勤或解码务,而是在客场迎战一些本土的咨询业务巨头,如IBM,惠普或是埃森哲。Having pleased clients with its work for them so far, TCS should have a decent chance at getting them to buy fancier and pricier services.塔塔一直以来都能满足客户需要,但仍需要恰当的实际让客户购买更吸引人也更昂贵的业务。David Johns, chief information officer at Owens Corning, a building-materials maker, is full of praise for TCS; his company has doubled its overall spending with the firm in recent years.建筑材料生产商欧文斯科宁的信息主管,大卫?约翰对塔塔评价很高,他的公司对近年已投入双倍的钱(购买塔塔的务)。Citigroup sold its India-based business-process unit to TCS, guaranteed it 5m annually in business for several years, and then proceeded to spend more than that.花旗集团将其在印度的业务板块出售给塔塔,并保近几年间每年付款27亿5千万美元,之后会投入的更多。However, Jagdish Rao, a technology chief at Citigroup, says most of the consulting work TCS has done so far has been on systems TCS had built or implemented itself.然而,花旗集团的技术主管加迪什?饶指出,塔塔的大部分咨询业务构架于自身建立或推行的制度之上。Tom Rodenhauser of Kennedy Information, which studies the consulting industry, agrees that it has yet to make a breakthrough in high-end work.肯尼迪信息公司研究咨询业的汤姆?罗德霍萨认同这一观点,指出塔塔有待于在高端市场中寻求突破。Although TCS is ;printing money; with its outsourcing business, he ;cant say with a straight face theyre doing great at consulting—theyre giving away what other companies charge for;, as a way of selling their legacy outsourcing services.尽管塔塔在外包产业中堪称;印钞机;,他;不能确定的说咨询业务也是他们的强项-这句完全不知道怎么翻囧;Amar Naga, the boss of the Milford facility, admits that consulting proper is so far just 2.6% of TCSs revenue.米勒福德分部的老板艾玛?纳迦承认咨询业务的业绩仅占公司总收入的2.6%。But it is growing more than twice as fast as the companys overall revenues, themselves still increasing at around 25% a year.但其增长速度是总收入(每年约增长25%)的两倍。Such eye-catching growth, combined with its reputation for high-quality work, suggests clients can be convinced that TCSs consultancy work is worth paying for.如此引人注目的增长速度,连同其高质量业务的名声,意味着客户可以相信塔塔的咨询业务是值得花钱购买的。For the American rivals it is planning to take on, TCS may so far be no more than a blip on the edge of their radar screens.就其即将面临的美国竞争对手而言,塔塔不过是他们雷达侦测屏边缘的一个小点。But as it pushes up into high-value consulting, several of them—such as IBM and HP—are trying to capture more work by moving downstream into TCSs traditional outsourcing territory.然而,塔塔正向高价值咨询界推进,诸如IBM和HP这几个对手已经顺势通过介入塔塔传统外包领域来争取更多的业务。When they meet in the middle it could be quite a fight.一旦狭路相逢,大战在所难免。 /201212/213873。

He developed a process that could be used in producing an artificial fertilizer with the help of which millions could be fed and he was a hero.他制订了一个过程,可用于生产人造化肥,喂饱了数百万人,这使他成了一个英雄。Haber and his family host Einstein’s wife Mileva Maric while she looks for an apartment for herself,当米列娃·马里奇为自己寻找公寓时,哈勃和他的家庭邀请爱因斯坦的这位妻子。 Albert and their two children,艾伯特和他们的两个孩子,Haber observes that resettling in Berlin seems to be unsettling relations between Einstein and his wife.哈勃注意到定居在柏林似乎令爱因斯坦和他的妻子感到有些不安。Mileva always was a brooding and somewhat despondent woman.米列娃是个有点沮丧且沉思的女人。And in Berlin, it gets much worse.在柏林,情况变得更加糟糕。He’s dallying with his cousin Elsa. 他与他的表埃尔莎虚度时光。Einstein is a very brutally honest guy,爱因斯坦是一个诚实守信的人,so every now and then he apparently would tell Mileva about Elsa,所以他不时地会告诉米列娃关于埃尔莎的事情,then they start fighting with each other,然后他们就开始吵架,not surprisingly the man who approached the universe in a unique way has a rather unconventional approach to married life.毫不奇怪这个接近宇宙的人正以一种独特的非常规方法对待婚后的生活。注:听力文本来源于普特201204/178411。

Science and technology科学技术Slim pickings重拾苗条Evidence that the problem of obesity starts in the womb有据明肥胖始于子宫IN THE late 1980s David Barker, a British doctor, suggested that what a woman eats when she is pregnant shapes her childs physiology for life.上世纪80年代末,英国医生大卫巴克尔说妇女怀期间饮食会塑造孩子未来的生理机能。He called the idea fetal programming.他称之为胎儿计划。Such programming would allow an individual to make optimum use of available nutrients, on the assumption that his own diet will be similar to his mothers.这一计划让每个人以最佳方式利用营养,他假定自己的饮食和母亲的相似。If it was not similar, though, there could be problems.如果不相似,就有问题了。Dr Barker speculated that fetal programming—in mesalliance with the sp of fatty, sugary foods over recent decades—might explain the epidemic of obesity, heart disease and late-onset diabetes that plagues many rich countries.巴克尔推测胎儿计划与偏远地区普遍的高脂肪,含糖饮食的有关系。这也许就解释了肥胖,心脏病以及折磨很多富裕国家的糖尿病。It is a neat theory, but hard to prove.这是很明确的结论,但却很难明。On October 29th, though, Sir Peter Gluckman, an endocrinologist and evolutionary biologist at the University of Auckland, in New Zealand, presented evidence to support it at a conference organised in Lausanne by Nestlé, a Swiss food company.但在10月29日,新西兰奥克兰大学内分泌和进化生物学学家彼得格拉克曼,在瑞士洛桑雀巢食品公司一个会议上提供了据。Dr Gluckman carried out his study in Jamaica, in collaboration with Terrence Forrester, of the University of the West Indies.格拉克曼士在牙买加进行了试验,并且与西印度大学特伦斯福伦斯特合作。He picked Jamaica because malnutrition is endemic there.他选择牙买加是因为营养不良是那里的地方病。That allows the theory of fetal programming to be tested by finding out whether those who experienced malnutrition in the womb respond differently to food than those who were properly fed.这样一来,胎儿计划就能通过研究母体内营养不良与营养充足是否影响孩子的食物选择来明。Dr Gluckman and Dr Forrester began their study by looking at people who had survived childhood malnutrition.格拉克曼和福伦斯特从研究儿童营养不良的幸存者开始。Symptoms normally manifest themselves in one of two ways, known as marasmus and kwashiorkor.常常表现为一种或两种症状,身体衰弱症和夸希奥科病。Children with marasmus are simply emaciated.衰弱症的孩子只是瘦而已。One significant difference between the two syndromes is that children with marasmus are twice as likely to survive malnutrition as those with kwashiorkor.夸希奥科病的孩子下腹则膨胀得像电视上那些饥荒浮肿的人。Dr Gluckman and Dr Forrester looked at 240 people aged between 25 and 40 who had survived one syndrome or the other as children, and found a systematic difference between them.格拉克曼和福伦斯特士观察了240个患有综合症的25到40岁之间成人和儿童,发现了二者有规律性的差别。The marasmus survivors tended to have had low birthweights.身体衰弱症的患者出生体重偏轻,The kwashiorkor group had normal birthweights. Low birthweight is an indication of a malnourished mother.夸希奥科病的人群出生体重正常。出生体重轻就表示母亲营养不良。Dr Gluckman and Dr Forrester thus hypothesise that the capacity for a marasmus-style response to malnutrition, with its higher survival rate, is programmed into fetuses by maternal malnourishment.两位士据此假设身体虚弱消瘦体质是因为营养不良,消瘦体质存活率很高,计入母亲营养不良所致。Fetuses carried by well-nourished mothers do not, as it were, anticipate the risk of malnutrition, and thus respond to it less well.福伦斯特士研究营养充足的母亲则不像营养不良的母亲那么易导致孩子营养不良,孩子也就不容易得消瘦症了。That suggests fetal programming is a real phenomenon.这些研究明胎儿计划确实存在。But can it help explain obesity, diabetes and so on?但它能否解释肥胖,糖尿病等病症呢?To investigate this, the two researchers then offered their volunteers foods that were either high in protein and low in fat, or low in protein and high in fat—but which, crucially, tasted the same, so that they did not know what they were eating.为了研究这个问题,两位士又给志愿者食用高蛋白低脂肪或者低蛋白高脂肪的食物,关键的是味道一样,志愿者就不知道自己吃的是什么了。They found that those who had survived marasmus ate differently from those who had survived kwashiorkor.他们发现得过消瘦症的人与得过夸希奥科病的人吃的不一样。The bodies of marasmus survivors seemed to demand more protein in their food.前者的食物似乎需要更多蛋白质。When offered a diet low in protein and high in fat, they consumed more of it.如果给他们低蛋白高脂肪的食物,他们就会吃得更多。That kept their protein intake constant, but meant they were eating 500 calories a day more than a normal maintenance diet.以此保蛋白质的摄入量,同时就意味着他们每天比正常人多摄入500卡路里的食物。Kwashiorkor survivors did not overeat in this way.得过夸希奥科病的人就不会这样暴饮暴食。This, then, may be the key that unlocks the puzzle.以上就是解开谜团的关键。Diets of the past would tend to have been lean.过去的饮食太不平衡了如果时间决定一切,Anticipating scarcity by overeating in times of plenty would be no bad thing if times of scarcity were a real risk.短期的饮食过量导致的营养缺乏并不会有严重后果。Bodies that expected food to be plentiful, by contrast, should ration themselves to avoid the consequences of chronic overeating.与此相反,对于想吃大量食物的人,则应该约束自己避开长期性饮食过量。An inability to do that is the price paid for protection from famine by those predisposed to marasmus.做而易患消瘦症的妇女因为穷又买不起蛋白质足的食物,就没法让自己营养充足了。This study thus makes a prediction: as diets become high in sugar and fat in places where malnutrition was once common, those who suffered marasmus as children will become overweight more rapidly than those who suffered kwashiorkor.这项研究预测:在高脂肪高糖类的地区营养不足很常见,那些得消瘦症的人,比如儿童,就会比夸希奥科病患者更快肥胖起来。If that turns out to be the case, it will be evidence that Dr Barker was right. What is not yet clear is whether the children of todays overfed westerners will experience programming in the opposite direction, and have their appetites restricted.如果真实情况就是这样,就明巴克尔教授结论正确。对营养过剩的西方人来说,小孩在母亲肚子里的时候是不是与非洲孩子情况相反,平时是不是注意了饮食限制,目前则尚不清楚。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/230161。

But here, theres none to be found.但是在这里,没有路了。Coming off these hills is not as easy as I thought. And theres obstacles everywhere you turn. And theres no way Im going to be able to cross this. 下山并没有我想的那么简单。不论转向哪边都有东西挡着。根本就不可能跨过这儿。And thats not the only danger youll face in this wilderness. Ahead are snakes and the most dangerous of all, Australias lethal crocodile.在野外,这绝不是你要面对的唯一的危险。前方会有蛇,还有最危险的动物——澳大利亚致命的鳄鱼。Im in the searing heat and humidity of Australias outback. Water is scarce and the territory is unforgiving. So is this forty-foot drop. This gorge isnt looking too great. Yeah, its probably about forty foot down there. But actually, this tree doesnt look too bad. And if I could just reach that main trunk, I might well be able to just like monkey down it. And actually, there was a hiker a couple of years ago who got lost. And he found himself on the top of a gorge like this since the only way out was to go down the tree. And he went through it. He managed it and he got out. Its a risky climb, so Im roping up just in case. Ive just got to get my legs around this tree trunk.澳大利亚内陆高温酷暑,潮湿闷热,水源极度匮乏。这片土地是那么的无情。那么这里有40英尺深吗?峡谷看起来并不很大。是的,也许从这儿到谷底有40英尺深。实际上,这些树木看起来也不赖。如果我能够得到那根主干,或许可以像猴子一样跳下去。两年前有一位徒步旅行者迷路了。它发现自己处在峡谷顶端,就像这里一样,唯一的出路就是沿着树干爬下去。于是他穿过了树木。他做到了,就这样摆脱了困境。这样下山很危险,所以这次我要用绳子绑住自己,双腿也要环抱着树干。本文译文属201206/188053。