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2017年11月25日 12:03:19|来源:国际在线|编辑:天涯社区
A treatment that uses “molecular scissors” to edit genes has been used for the first time by UK medics successfully to treat a one-year-old girl with an “incurable” form of leukaemia.英国医生第一次依靠使用“分子剪刀”修改基因的疗法,成功地治愈了一名患有“无法治愈的”白血病的1岁女孩。The case at Great Ormond Street Hospital in London involved the creation of “designer immune cells” programmed to hunt and kill the disease. The girl, called Layla, is now cancer free and doing well, according to the hospital.伦敦大奥蒙德街医院(Great Ormond Street Hospital)的这一病例,生成经过设计的“人工培育的免疫细胞”去捕捉并治疗疾病。医院称,这个名叫“莱拉”(Layla)的女孩目前摆脱了癌症,身体状况很不错。The breakthrough will add to excitement over the fast-emerging field of gene-editing — a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, replaced or removed from genes to fix faults or fight disease.这次突破将令人对基因编辑这一快速发展的新兴领域感到更加兴奋。基因编辑是基因工程的一种,向基因中插入DNA,替换或取下其中的DNA,从而修复缺陷或战胜疾病。Gene-editing has caused controversy because of its potential to be used in ethically dubious ways, such as the creation of “designer babies”. However, the London success helps show why many scientists are so enthusiastic about the technology.基因编辑引发了争议,因为它可能导致令人产生道德疑虑的用法,比如生成“设计婴儿”。然而,这家伦敦医院的成功也明,为何很多科学家那么热衷于这项技术。The so-called UCART19 cells used at Great Ormond Street had shown promise in animals but had never been used in humans before they were administered as a last-ditch attempt to save Layla after other drugs failed.大奥蒙德街医院使用的所谓UCART19细胞在动物身上已显出良好前景,但除了此次为救活莱拉而做的最后努力之前,该细胞从未应用于人体。此前在莱拉身上使用的其他药物全部失败了。The treatment, developed by a French biotech company called Cellectis, consisted of 1ml of UCART19 cells injected into Layla’s bloodstream. After several weeks it was clear the leukaemia cells were disappearing.这一疗法是由法国生物科技公司Cellectis开发出来的,把1毫升的UCART19细胞注入了莱拉的血流中。几周后,白血病细胞明显开始消失。The treatment is similar to cancer therapies in development using modified T-cells from companies including Novartis of Switzerland and Juno and Kite of the US. However, whereas others use cells extracted from the patient’s own blood, UCART19 cells come from healthy donors.该疗法类似于瑞士的诺华制药(Novartis)以及美国的Juno和Kite等公司开发的使用修饰T细胞治疗癌症的办法。然而,其他疗法使用从病人自身血液中提取的细胞,而UCART19细胞则来自于健康的捐献者。This overcomes the problem of many leukaemia patients not having enough healthy T-cells — a type of white blood cell that fights off disease — to be harvested after chemotherapy.这就克了从化疗后的许多白血病患者体内难以提取到足量健康T细胞的难题。T细胞是一种能够对抗疾病的白血细胞。A further possible advantage is that donor cells can be mass produced for use in any patient, making them potentially more affordable than rival treatments that must be personalised for each individual. High costs are viewed as one of the biggest drawbacks of the so-called CAR-T therapies under development by Novartis, Juno and Kite.一个更有可能的优势在于,捐赠细胞可以大规模生产,并用于任何患者,与因患者而异的其他疗法相比,在成本上更低。诺华制药、Juno和Kite正在研制中的所谓CAR-T疗法的最大缺点之一,就是被认为价格太高。 /201511/408543A survey shows over 80% of college students are plagued by procrastination, requiring epic all-nighters to finish papers and prepare for tests.一项调查显示,超过八成的大学生被拖延症所困扰,这才有了大伙通宵达旦写论文或备考的壮观景象。Roughly 20% of adults report being chronic procrastinators. But Adam Grant writes in the NYT that most people think procrastination as a vice for productivity. But it#39;s actually a virtue for creativity.近两成的成人承认自己是慢性拖延症患者。但是亚当·格兰特在纽约时报上写道,大部分人认为拖延症是效率的大敌,但实际上它是创造力的表现。According to Grant our first ideas are usually our most conventional but when you procrastinate, you#39;re more likely to let your mind wander giving you a better chance of spotting unexpected patterns.根据格兰特所说的,我们的第一个想法通常是我们最习惯的那个想法。但当你有所拖延的时候,其实这更有可能会让你的思维活跃起来,这也会给你提供一个发现意外模式的机会。Experts say procrastination encourages divergent thinking.专家称,拖延激发了发散性思维。Even some monumental achievements are helped by procrastination. Grant says that according to those who knew him, Steve Jobs procrastinated constantly, Bill Clinton has been described as a ;chronic procrastinator; who waits until the last minute to revise his speeches.甚至一些名人的成就都是靠拖延的帮助才得以实现的。格兰特说,从那些了解乔布斯的人我们可以获知,乔布斯就是一个总是拖延的家伙。此外,比尔·克林顿是一个被形容为有;慢性拖延症;的人,直到最后一刻他才会修改他的演讲。Aaron Sorkin, the screenwriter, is known to put off writing until the last minute. He once said, ;You call it procrastination, I call it thinking.;此外,编剧艾伦·索金曾说过,;你认为是拖延,我认为是思考。;众所周知,他的剧本总是要拖到最后一刻才会动笔。 /201601/423159

Who doesn#39;t get stressed every now and then? It may feel like you#39;re always on the brink of being totally overwhelmed. The key is knowing when it#39;s happening — and being proactive about putting an end to it.  谁不会时不时的感到焦虑呢?有时候你会感到自己就在彻底崩溃的边缘,应对这种状态的关键在于,知道你什么时候会有这种感觉——并且要预先准备好克这种状态的应对之道。  We rounded up 30 expert and research-backed ways to relax, whether you have five minutes, five hours or five weeks. So long, stress!  我们收集了三十种让你放松压力的方法,这些方法都是经过专家验和调研统计的,不管你能抽出五分钟还是五个小时,抑或5周时间,都来看看吧。永别啦,焦虑!  1. Write your worries down in a journal.  把你的烦恼都记在日记里。  2. Peel an orange. Studies show the smell of citrus can help reduce stress.  剥个橙子。研究明橙子的香气能帮助人减缓压力。  3. Eat an avocado.  吃一个鳄梨。  4. Take a walk in green space.  在绿荫中散个步。  5. Hang out with your BFF.  跟闺蜜来个聚会。  6. Spend a few minutes focusing on your breath.  花几分钟时间专注地调整呼吸。  7. Take a power nap.  好好睡个午觉。  8. Bring your dog to work.  把你的带去上班。  9. Listen to Mozart.  听莫扎特的音乐。  10. Try some aromatherapy.  尝试一下香薰疗法。  11. Let out a laugh.  开怀大笑。  12. Get a massage.  收个短信息。  13. Give someone a big hug.  给别人一个大大的拥抱。  14. Belt it out at karaoke...  在KTV引吭高歌……  15. Do a small project or craft.  做点小手工和小任务。  16. Take up knitting.  学学编织。  17. Unsubscribe from all of those promotional emails.  退订所有的推销邮件。  18. Kiss a loved one.  亲吻你的爱人。  19. Call your mom.  给妈妈打个电话。  20. Do a progressive muscle relaxation exercise.  做一套强度循序渐进的肌肉放松操。  21. Set ;stress boundaries;. If someone — or something — is starting to stress you out, step away from the situation.  设置一个“压力防火墙”,如果某人或某件事开始让你感到焦虑,从这种让你焦虑的环境中走出来。  22. Go for a run.  出去跑一跑。  23. Color a picture. This activity isn#39;t just for kids!  为一幅图画上色,这可不仅仅是孩子的游戏!  24. Pet your dog or cat.  宠爱你的或者猫。  25. Look out the window.  看看窗外的风景。  26. Try a de-stressing app.  试着用用放松压力的应用程序。  27. Use your imagination and look at your life like scenes in a movie.  动用你的想象力,想象自己像看电影中的画面一样观赏着自己的生活。  28. Count to 10, then count backward.  数到10,然后倒数到1。  29. Spend a little time in the sun. (Just wear your SPF!)  花点时间呆在阳光下。(记得擦防晒霜哟!)  30. Take a lunch break away from your desk.  离开办公桌好好吃顿午饭。 /201603/433456

Everyone has their own favorite foods to choose from, but how many of our beloved foods do we know the history of? Who has sat down with their burger at a fast food chain and asked themselves #39;Where did the idea of burgers come from?#39; Probably nobody, as their mouth would be full of burger before the thought would even occur to them. Some of the foods we eat day-in, day-out, however, can have surprisingly long histories behind them. In this list, we#39;ll be exploring the origin stories behind ten commonplace foods from around the world. Try not to get too hungry.每个人都有自己喜爱的食物,但我们对它的历史了解多少呢?谁会在快餐店里拿着汉堡坐下,然后问自己:;汉堡的主意来自哪里呢?;可能不会有人这么做,因为在他们这么想之前,嘴巴就已经被汉堡塞满了。然而,我们每天所吃的食物背后可能存在着令人吃惊的悠久历史。在这篇文章里,我们将了解全球常见的10种食物背后的故事。可不要太饿哦。10.Burgers10.汉堡包A lot of people reckon that the burger was an American invention, but they were by no means the first country to think it up. The humble burger, like many other foods, actually has quite a long history attached to it. Perhaps it did not have cheese, onions, and buns to go with it, but it was definitely there.很多人认为汉堡包是美国人的发明,但他们绝不是第一个想出这个点子的国家。像其他很多食物一样,平凡的汉堡包实际上有着非常悠久的历史。或许那时它还没有加奶酪、洋葱和小圆面包,但它确实已经出现在那里。The full name, #39;hamburger#39;, originates from 1880, when German immigrants created the meal within Hamburg, Germany. In order to make a beef steak, they would grind up the meat and create a steak from what remained, calling it a #39;Hamburg steak#39;. This steak would eventually have its name shortened to #39;hamburger#39;. What must be noted, however, was that this was the origin of the steak itself – nobody quite knows where the idea of sticking a hamburger between two buns came from. As for the steak itself, we have our German friends to thank for that. Big Macs would not be the same without you. There is a little bit of history that states that the Romans created the #39;Isicia Omentata#39;, regarded as the first burger. However, this appears to be a recipe for a sausage, rather than an actual burger. More on sausages later.它的全名是;汉堡包;,起源于1880年,当时德国移民在汉堡发明了这种食物。为了做牛排,他们将肉磨碎,用它制成肉饼,叫做;汉堡牛排;。这种牛肉饼的名字最后缩短成了;汉堡包;。但必须说明的是,这是牛排自身的起源——没人知道把一个煎牛肉饼贴在两个圆面包之间的主意从哪儿来。至于牛排,我们要感谢德国朋友。要是没有你们,现在的巨无霸也会不一样。有一些历史表明罗马人发明了;Isicia Omentata;,这被认为是第一款汉堡包。但是,它的制作食谱看起来像是一个香肠的食谱,而非真正的汉堡。后面会介绍更多关于香肠的内容。9.French Fries9.炸薯条Of all the foods to have an origin story, this one seems to be the most clear cut as to where it came from. Unfortunately, there#39;s an ongoing dispute between France and Belgium as to who really made it.在所有具有历史起源的食物中,这一款食物的源起最清楚不过。不幸地是,法国与比利时一直在争论到底是谁真正发明了这种食物。The Belgian side of the story is that the 17th Century residents of the Meuse Valley in Belgium were not shy of frying things. They had a tendency to fry any fish that they caught, which made up the majority of what they ate. When winter came and the rivers froze over, the Belgians turned to the ever-reliable spud, preparing them in battered slices, the same way they prepared fish. The French side states that, in the late 17th Century, potatoes were regarded unfit for human consumption, and only for pigs to eat. When a famine struck in 1785, this mind-set changed, and the French gave the potato another chance. It caught on so well, by 1795 they were grown everywhere, with even some royal gardens being converted to help grow the friendly spud. During this boom, someone had the smart idea of frying the slices and selling them as #39;frites#39;. Thus, the French fry was born. Whichever side you take, just remember that asking for #39;Belgian fries#39; at a drive-thru will get you funny looks.比利时的版本是:17世纪比利时默兹河流域的居民喜欢吃油炸食品。他们习惯把捕来的所有鱼都进行油炸,这在他们的饮食中占据了绝大部分。当冬天来临,河流冰冻,比利时人就求助于他们一直以来所依赖的马铃薯,把它们切成薄片预备着,他们对鱼也采取同样的处理方式。法国的版本是:在17世纪后期,人们认为土豆并不适合食用,只能用来喂猪。到1785年爆发了饥荒,这种想法才得以改变,法国人发现了土豆的另一个用途。它变得相当流行,到1795年已经在各个地方都有种植,甚至一些皇家公园都被改造以有利于这些友好的马铃薯生长。在这个土豆繁荣的时期,有人想出一个聪明的点子,将土豆切片并油炸,然后起名为;炸薯条;进行售卖。薯条由此诞生。不论你相信哪个版本,只要记住,在汽车餐厅里点一份;比利时薯条;会让你看起来很搞笑。8.Sausages8.香肠The exact origin of the sausage is unclear, with reports ranging around 50,000. There is an agreement, however, that the sausages, frankfurters, and hot dogs that people eat on a daily basis originated from a desire to preserve meat.香肠的准确起源并不清楚,大约在公元前50000年就已经有了相关记载。不过存在着一个共识,那就是人们每天吃的香肠、法兰克福香肠和热都是源于人们保存肉类的愿望。Ever wonder why sausages are wrapped in some form of casing? The reason is that, before refrigeration, butchers would want to preserve meat during transit. They took the meat, organs, and blood of a slaughtered animal, sprinkled it with salt to preserve it, then wrapped the gristly results in the animal#39;s intestine or stomach to stop it going off before it could be eaten. This is why some sausages contain a large amount of blood in their recipes; the origin of this practice was to help use up any blood that was left over after slaughtering an animal. We have no real use for salting today, given how good fridges can be with preserving meat. The tradition of meat in casing, however, still goes strong to this day.想知道香肠为什么要用各种肠衣包裹?原因就是在冷藏之前,屠夫想要在运输途中保存肉类。他们将动物屠杀,在所得的肉、五脏和血上撒盐以便保存,然后将这些柔软的东西包进动物的肠或胃里,防止吃之前腐坏。这就是为什么有些香肠的制作食谱中包含有大量的血,这种做法是为了用尽屠杀动物后所留下的所有血。在今天,我们已经无需再盐腌肉类,因为有冰箱可以保存肉类。但是,将肉灌进肠衣的传统至今仍然盛行。7.Pizza7.披萨Any time anyone mentions the dish, the image of black-haired, rotund Italian chefs kissing their fingers comes to mind. The #39;traditional#39; image of the dish consisting of b, tomatoes and cheese did, in fact, originate from Naples. The food was easy to make with little cost, and was regarded as something that the poor could eat to keep themselves going. It contained cheese, tomatoes and basil – very similar to the kind we consume today. The idea of placing food on top of flatb, however, dates before the Italian invention.任何时候想起这个食物,人们脑海中就会浮现出黑头发圆滚滚的意大利厨师亲吻自己手指的画面。这款食物包含着面包、土豆和奶酪的;传统;形象实际上起源于那不勒斯。这种食物容易制作,成本低,被认为是穷人也能吃得起的东西。它包括奶酪、土豆和罗勒——与我们今天食用的很相似。但是,将食物铺在面饼上的主意最早由意大利人发明。A lot of cultures – including the Romans and the Egyptians – came up with the concept of meal on top of flatb, but the Persians were the first recorded case. When King Darius the Great ruled the Persian Empire, it is thought that his soldiers baked flatbs on their shields, and added cheese and dates for flavouring. Ordering Dominos while in enemy territory just isn#39;t ideal.很多文化——包括罗马与埃及——都给这种面饼上面的食物下过定义,但波斯人最先进行了记录。在大流士一世统治波斯帝国的时候,他的士兵就在盾牌上烤制面饼,并添加上奶酪和枣椰子调味。在敌人领地里要求吃上达美乐披萨可不太现实。6.Tomato Ketchup6.番茄酱Everyone would probably think that tomato ketchup would originate from the US, and they#39;d be right. The first recipe popped up in 1801 in the #39;Sugar House Book#39;, an American publication. What#39;s interesting about our favourite condiment, however, is that ketchup was based on an older recipe.人人都会以为番茄酱起源于美国,他们没错。第一份制作食谱于1801年出现在《糖屋书》中,这本书由美国出版。但是,有趣的是,这款我们最喜欢的调味品其实是在一份更加古老的食谱基础之上制作而成。Its original name is #39;ke-tsiap#39; and it started in 17th Century China. While it has a name similar to the bottle of red stuff we shamelessly apply to everything, the actual sauce itself was made up of fish brine and spices. The Dutch and English would end up taking a few bottles back home with them, well-loved due to its ability to keep for large amounts of time, a key trait that sailors and travelers appreciated when stocking their larders. The sauce saw a lot of remixes on the original recipe – including a moment in time where mushrooms where a primary ingredient — before the tomato variation was devised.它起初的名字是;ke-tsiap;,起源于17世纪的中国。尽管它的名字很像我们往各种食物上洒的红色调料,但实际的调味汁本身却是由鱼露和香料制成。荷兰人和英国人最后就带了几瓶回家,这种酱汁得到厚爱,因为它能够保存很长时间,水手和旅行者很喜欢将其储存在食品室里。在最初的食谱中,这种酱汁由很多种材料混合而成——最早的原料中还曾一度包含了蘑菇——后来才发明出了以番茄为原料的变种。翻译:赵倩 来源:前十网 /201510/405191

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